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Navy 1985 - 1988

1986 - MICHAEL HAHN ALLEN, a retired Navy Senior Chief Radioman employed at the Cubi Point Naval Air Station in the Philippines, was arrested on suspicion of espionage by Navy security agents on 4 December 1986. Allen, who had been working as a civilian clerk, retired from the Navy in 1972. The employee confessed to passing classified US counterintelligence reports to Philippine intelligence officers after seeing a videotape of himself hiding documents in his pockets. When apprehended he had a photocopy of a Secret page on his person; six other classified documents were seized at his residence. The charges covered the period between July and December 1986 during which time he was accused of photocopying and removing classified material from the communication center. According to the Naval Investigative Service, Allen's activities may have resulted in the compromising of important Filipino intelligence sources. Prosecutors argued that Allen's main reason for providing secrets to the Filipinos was to promote his local business interests that included a used car dealership, a bar, and a cockfighting ring. On 14 August 1987, a court martial in San Diego found Allen guilty of 10 counts of espionage and sentenced him to eight years in prison. The six-officer panel also imposed a $10,000 fine on the former radioman.

New York Times 12 Dec 1986, “Navy Employee Held in Espionage-Related Case”
Los Angeles Times 15 Aug 1987, “Linked to Filipinos; Ex-Navy Man Found Guilty“


1988 - DAVID FLEMING, Navy Chief Petty Officer, was convicted by a six-member military court on 4 October 1988 for the theft of 16 Secret photographs and four classified training manuals that he had at his home. At the time of his arrest in October 1987, Fleming was chief photographer aboard the submarine USS La Jolla, based at San Diego, California. At that time Federal agents found classified material in Fleming's apartment. Fleming contended that cramped quarters aboard the ship led him to develop photographs at home. Concluding that he knew that the materials, if kept at home, could result in damage to national security, the court convicted Fleming under statutes which apply to acts of espionage. However, no evidence was presented to the court that the Chief Petty Officer had intended to provide classified materials to representatives of another country. Fleming was sentenced to four years’ confinement and was given a bad conduct discharge from the Navy. In April 1989 a Navy parole board in San Diego recommended that the remainder of the four-year sentence be commuted. He was released on parole in 1990.

Los Angeles Times 5 Oct 1988, “Sailor Gets Prison in Classified Data Case”
San Diego Union 15 Apr 1989, “Early Release Backed for Sailor Convicted on Security Charges


1988 - WILFREDO GARCIA, Navy Master-at-Arms 1st Class, was found guilty of espionage on 22 January 1988 following a two-year investigation by agents of the Naval Investigative Service and the FBI. In late 1985, NIS and FBI officials received information that a civilian businessman in Vallejo, California, was attempting to sell classified Navy documents to representatives of a foreign government. A cooperating witness identified Garcia, who was then stationed at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, as the source. Confidential documents stolen by Garcia dealing with submarine activities were sold to the civilian for $800,000, with a promise of more money when they were resold to a foreign government. Evidence indicated that the final destination could have been an East-Bloc country. The espionage scheme resulted in a number of classified documents being taken to the Philippines for sale to a foreign power there. Participants in the conspiracy couriered the documents on commercial aircraft and had gathered the material in a residence in Manila. NIS agents in Manila entered the home with a search warrant and recovered the documents before the planned sale. At a general court-martial convened in January 1988, Garcia was found guilty of espionage, conspiracy to commit espionage, larceny, conspiracy to commit larceny, sale of government property, and violations of military regulations. He was sentenced to 12 years’ confinement, reduced in rank to E-1, forfeited all pay and allowances, and received a dishonorable discharge from the Navy. Garcia had served in the Navy for 15 years.

Naval Investigative Service Command, Espionage, 1989
Sentry Spring/Summer 1988, "MA1 Convicted of Espionage"


1986 - ROBERT DEAN HAGUEWOOD, Petty Officer 3rd Class, was arrested 4 March 1986 by agents of the Naval Investigative Service after allegedly selling part of a Confidential aviation ordinance manual to an undercover police officer. Haguewood, who was stationed at the Pacific Missile Test Center at Point Mugu Naval Air Station near Oxnard, California, reportedly asked around town for someone who would pay for secret information about Naval ordinance. He was placed under surveillance by agents of the Naval Investigative Service who, with the FBI and local police officials, made the arrest on 4 March after Haguewood received a payment of $360 for the classified document at a beach location. No contact was made with foreign representatives and no information is known to have been compromised. Haguewood was reported to have had serious financial problems. On 20 June, Haguewood pleaded guilty under a plea-bargain agreement and received a sentence of two years from a military court.

Washington Post 1 Mar 1986, “Sailor Allegedly Tried to Sell Manual”
New York Times 11 Mar 1986, “Navy Man Arrested in Spy Case”
Washington Post 20 Jun 1986, “Sale of 'Secrets' To Put Sailor Behind Bars”


1985 - STEPHEN DWAYNE HAWKINS, was serving in 1985 as a Quartermaster Third Class at the Commander Submarine Group 8 in Naples, Italy. A visitor to his home off base in June reported seeing a classified message there. Interviews with Hawkins by Naval Investigative Service agents and a series of polygraphs that showed deception resulted in Hawkins confessing that he had taken at least 17 Secret messages home with him and was considering selling them to a hostile intelligence service. He was convicted at general court-martial on 15 January 1986 of violating Article 92, wrongful removal of classified material and wrongful destruction of a classified message. He was sentenced to a dishonorable discharge, one year in prison, and reduction in grade to E-1.

Naval Investigative Service Command, Espionage, 1989


1985 - JONATHAN JAY POLLARD, a civilian counterintelligence analyst at the Anti-Terrorist Alert Center at the Naval Investigative Service in Suitland, MD, and his wife, ANNE HENDERSON-POLLARD, were apprehended on 21 November 1985 outside the Israeli Embassy in Washington, DC, as they vainly sought political asylum with hope of fleeing the country. Both were charged under the espionage code for selling classified documents to an Israeli intelligence unit for $50,000. It is reported that Pollard's detection resulted from tips from fellow employees that the accused was seeking and copying more classified documents than his job required. His pattern of taking documents away from the office was noted by a supervisor. Confronted with evidence of his activities by the NCIS and the FBI on 15 November, Pollard admitted delivering classified documents to a foreign government agent. He was originally ideologically motivated to pass classified information, but that motivation was later clouded by monetary considerations. The couple had begun to lead a luxurious lifestyle based on their monthly retainer from Israel of $2,500. They visited Israel and Europe several times at the expense of the Israeli government and on one of these trips were married in Vienna, Austria. While at Stanford University in 1976, Pollard is reported to have boasted to friends about working for the Mossad, Israel's foreign intelligence agency. Pollard’s claim to involvement with Israeli intelligence never emerged during the course a background investigation when he applied for a Top Secret security clearance. Anne Henderson-Pollard was accused of intending to sell to representatives of the Peoples Republic of China documents related to the US analysis of China's intelligence operations in this country. A suitcase found in their residence was filled with Top Secret documents relating to military capabilities of foreign countries. On 4 June 1986, Pollard and his wife pleaded guilty to espionage and related charges under a plea agreement with Federal officials. Four Israeli nationals were later named as unindicted co-conspirators. On 4 March 1987 Jonathan Pollard was sentenced to life imprisonment. Several attempts by special interest groups to obtain a parole for Pollard have failed. Anne Henderson-Pollard received a five-year term.

New York Times 28 Nov 1985, “F.B.I. Man Says Naval Analyst Told of Spying”
Washington Post 4 Dec 1985, “FBI Seeking Pollard Contact Identity”
Washington Post 5 Jun 1986, “Ex-Analyst Pollard Pleads Guilty to Spying”
Naval Investigative Service Command, Espionage, 1989


1988 - STEPHEN JOSEPH RATKAI, was arrested by Canadian authorities on 11 June 1988 and charged with attempting to obtain US classified military documents related to the operation of a US Navy installation at Argentia, Newfoundland. Although born in Canada, Ratkai was brought up in Hungary, his father's native country, after the death of his Canadian mother. As an adult he returned to Canada to work as a short-order cook, but made frequent trips back to Hungary. Ratkai was seized as a result of a double agent operation begun two years earlier by the US Naval Investigative Service and Canadian intelligence: On 2 December 1986 Donna Geiger walked on board a Soviet scientific research vessel, the Akademik Boris Petrov, which was temporarily docked in the harbor of St. John's, Newfoundland. Geiger, a Navy lieutenant, was a double agent who had been recruited by the Naval Investigative Service. She was stationed at the US Naval Facility in Argentia. On board the Soviet ship, she portrayed herself as a “disgruntled female naval officer ... working in a world dominated by men ... assigned to an isolated duty station.” She brought classified material to prove her intentions. Two months later she received a letter indicating someone would meet with her. Finally in May 1987, acting on directions she received by mail, she met her contact, “Michael,” in the parking lot of the Hotel Newfoundland in St. John's. She was given money and some tasking to collect information. A week later Lt. Geiger met Michael in a restaurant. Classified information was exchanged for money. During this meeting she was tasked to provide information on the highly classified Sound Underwater Surveillance System, the Naval Facility Argentia's area of responsibility. After several more meetings, Michael was identified as Ratkai. At their last meeting in June 1988, Geiger steered Ratkai to a room at the Hotel Newfoundland which was outfitted with surveillance equipment. More money and classified information was exchanged. When Ratkai left the room, he was arrested. No damage is reported to have occurred. On 6 February 1989 Ratkai pleaded guilty to one general charge of spying on behalf of the Soviet Union from May 1987 to June 1988 and one charge of attempted espionage. On 9 March 1989 the Newfoundland Supreme Court sentenced Ratkai to two concurrent nine-year prison terms.

New York Times 16 Jun 1988, “Canada Holds Suspect in Spying on US Navy”
St. Louis Post-Dispatch 11 Mar 1989, “Spy Gets 9 Years”
Naval Investigative Service Command, Espionage, 1989


1988 - GLENN MICHAEL SOUTHER, On 11 July 1988, Soviet newspaper Izvestia announced that Souther, a former navy photographic specialist who disappeared in May 1986, had been granted political asylum in the Soviet Union. Just before his disappearance, Souther, a recent graduate with a major in Russian Studies from Old Dominion University, was questioned by FBI counterintelligence agents. According to one source, investigators were acting “on more than suspicions, but didn't catch him in the act of espionage, and thus couldn't hold Souther at the time he was questioned.” While attending college, Souther had been assigned as an active reservist to the Navy Intelligence Center in Norfolk where he had access to classified information. Souther's sudden disappearance was of considerable concern to FBI and Navy officials since the former Navy enlisted man had held special security clearances while on active duty with the Sixth Fleet in the early 1980s. During that time he had access to highly classified photo-intelligence materials. Souther joined the Navy in 1975 and left active duty in 1982 with the position of photographers mate. According to the Soviets, the former Navy specialist had asked for asylum because “he had to hide from the US special services which were pursuing him groundlessly.” Described as a bright but undisciplined young man by former teachers and acquaintances, Souther reportedly had wanted to become a US Naval officer, but had been turned down as a Navy officer candidate. On 22 June 1989, at the age of 32, he reportedly committed suicide by asphyxiation after shutting himself in his garage and starting his car. Russian newspapers suggested he had been disappointed by aspects of Soviet life after defecting in 1986 and was prone to depression.

Washington Post 18 Jul 1988, “Ex-Sailor Defects to Soviets”


1988 - HENRY OTTO SPADE, a former Navy radio operator, was arrested in Mountain Home, Arkansas, on 17 November 1988 for the unauthorized possession of two Top Secret documents. One of the documents was a cryptographic key card. Spade, who was discharged from the Navy in April 1988, stole the items while on active duty, but had reportedly made no attempt to sell them to any person or foreign government. While in the Navy, Spade served aboard the USS Midway and the USS Bristol County. Charged with one count of espionage, Spade pleaded innocent and was released on $25,000 bond. Spade faced up to 10 years in prison and a $250,000 fine when convicted, but on 14 March 1989 was sentenced to three months’ probation.

Washington Post 18 Nov 1988, "Ex-Sailor Charged in Secrets Case"


1985 - MICHAEL TIMOTHY TOBIAS, Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class, along with his nephew, FRANCIS X. PIZZO, were arrested on 13 August 1985 and charged with stealing Top Secret cryptographic key cards from the USS Peoria, berthed at San Diego. The pair were also accused of attempting to sell the material to representatives of the Soviet Union for $100,000. Tobias and Pizzo drove to the Soviet Consulate in San Francisco, but arrived during the early morning before regular business hours. Having failed in their initial attempt to contact a “foreign power,” and obviously having second thoughts about committing espionage, the pair drove back to San Diego and called the US Secret Service offering to sell the cards back to the government for amnesty and money by claiming that they were prepared to sell the key material to the Soviets. Several calls were placed to the Secret Service by Pizzo, one of which was traced by the FBI. Also arrested in connection with the case were Tobias's brother, BRUCE TOBIAS, and DALE IRENE of San Diego. According to government prosecutors, Tobias took the classified cards from the ship instead of shredding them, as was his assignment with the intention of selling them. Pizzo pleaded guilty to five Federal charges and on 7 October was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Bruce Tobias and Dale Irene pleaded guilty to two counts of receiving stolen property. During the four-day trial of Michael Tobias, an NSA official testified that the cards would have provided sensitive information about the location and movement of US and foreign vessels. Two of the 12 pilfered cards have not been recovered. On 14 August Michael Tobias was found guilty of four counts of conspiracy and three counts of theft of government property. The US Attorney stated that Tobias had attempted to leave the country and that he and Pizzo had been seen near the Soviet Consulate in San Francisco before their arrests. On 12 November 1995, Michael Tobias was sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment; in January 1996, Bruce Tobias was sentenced to the prison time he served up to that date (159 days), and Dale Irene was sentenced to a two-year confinement.

New York Times 15 Aug 1985, “Sailor is Guilty of Conspiring to Sell Secret Data from Ship”
New York Times 13 Nov 1985, “Sailor Sentenced to 20 Years for Trying to Sell 11 Navy Codes”
Naval Investigative Service Command, Espionage, 1989


1985 - ARTHUR JAMES WALKER, a retired Navy Lieutenant Commander, was arrested on 29 May 1985 for providing classified material to his brother in 1981 and 1982. Arthur Walker was employed with a defense contractor in Chesapeake, Virginia, where he reportedly sought work in early 1980 at the urging of his brother, John A. Walker, to gain access to classified documents. During the period of his employment, Arthur Walker provided his brother with several Confidential documents that related to ship construction and design. These were photocopied and returned to the firm's classified container. In all Arthur Walker received $12,000 for his collaboration, much of which he returned to his brother to repay a debt. His motive for participating in John Walker’s scheme was both for money and to help this brother. On 9 August 1985, he was found guilty of seven counts of espionage by a US District Court judge. On 12 November, Arthur Walker was sentenced to life imprisonment and fined $250,000. At the time of sentencing it was revealed that polygraph tests indicated Walker may have been involved in espionage while on active duty with the Navy.

Washington Post 7 Aug 1985, “Two Portraits of Arthur Walker: Subversive Plotter”
Washington Post 10 Aug 1985, “Walker Guilty of Espionage on 7 Counts”
Time Magazine 19 Aug 1985, “A Spy Ring Goes to Court”
New York Times 13 Nov 1985, “Arthur Walker Sentenced to Life; Wider Spying Role”


1985 - JOHN ANTHONY WALKER, and his son, MICHAEL LANCE WALKER, were indicted 28 May 1985 by a Federal grand jury in Baltimore on six counts of espionage. The elder Walker, a retired Navy warrant officer who had held a Top Secret crypto clearance, was charged with having sold classified material to Soviet agents for the past 18 years. During his military career, Walker made some investments in which he lost money. To make up for his losses, in late 1968 at the age of 30, Walker went to the Soviet Embassy in Washington, DC, and offered his services for purposes of espionage. He compromised key cards used for enciphering messages and also provided information on the encryption devices themselves. At least a million classified messages of the military services and US intelligence agencies were compromised. A Soviet defector said the KGB considered this the most important operation in its history. Michael Walker, a petty officer assigned to the USS Nimitz, was accused of providing classified Navy documents to his father for sale to the Soviets. Fifteen pounds of classified material were in his possession at the time of arrest on the Nimitz. John Walker's arrest resulted from a tip to the FBI from his former wife. He was apprehended at a Maryland motel after depositing a number of documents at a roadside drop. Soviet Embassy official, Alexei Tkachenko, who was spotted in the area, returned to Moscow within days of Walker's arrest. It is also alleged that John Walker recruited his brother, ARTHUR JAMES WALKER, and former Navy friend, JERRY ALFRED WHITWORTH, as sources of classified information for Soviet intelligence (see separate summaries for these cases). On 28 October, both John and Michael Walker pleaded guilty to espionage charges under a plea agreement by which the senior Walker agreed to testify in the trial of Jerry Whitworth and to provide full information on what was given to the Soviets in exchange for a lesser sentence for his son. On 6 November 1986, John Walker was sentenced to two life terms plus 10 years to be served concurrently. Michael was sentenced to 25 years. A Federal grand jury has been convened to pursue some of the unresolved questions including the location of up to $1 million possibly hidden by John Walker, and the involvement of minor players in the espionage ring.

New York Times 21 May 1985, “Ex-Navy Officer Is Charged With Espionage”
Washington Post 22 May 1985, “Spy Suspect's Son Queried”
Washington Post 16 Aug 1985, “Lawyers Admit Walker Left Bag”
Washington Post 29 Oct 1985, “2 Walkers Plead Guilty to Spying”
Washington Post 7 Nov 1986, “Walker Gets Life Term; Judge to Oppose Parole”
Naval Investigative Service Command, Espionage, 1989


1985 - JERRY ALFRED WHITWORTH, collaborator with JOHN A. WALKER, surrendered to FBI agents on 3 June 1985 following the issue of a complaint charging him with conspiracy to commit espionage. Whitworth, a retired Naval communications specialist who had held a Top Secret clearance, is alleged to have received $332,000 through Walker for highly classified information related to Naval communications between 1975 and 1982. FBI sources state that Whitworth had attempted to arrange a meeting with them in 1984 in order to bargain for immunity from prosecution. According to one news item, of all the alleged participants in the Walker spy ring the damage attributed to Whitworth is thought to be the worst since he is reported to have provided the Soviets with key lists that would have enabled them to decode US Naval communications, and classified information about the design of cryptographic equipment. Whitworth pleaded innocent to a 13-count indictment, but during his subsequent trial, defense lawyers admitted that he had passed classified materials to John Walker. However, the argument that he did not know these highly classified cryptographic materials were ending up in Soviet hands was not accepted by the Federal jury. Following a highly publicized three-month trial, Whitworth was convicted on 12 counts of espionage and tax evasion. The former communications specialist received a sentence of 365 years and a fine of $410,000 on 28 August 1986.

Washington Post 4 Jun 1985, “4th Arrested in Spy Case”
Washington Post 8 Jun 1985, “Agent Believes Sailor Said He Passed Data”
Washington Post 14 Jun 1985, “Accused Spy ‘A Quiet Man’”


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