Paraphilia is the medical term applied to many sexual behaviors commonly referred to as "kinky," bizarre, or perverted. A paraphilia is a recurrent and intense sexual urge or sexually arousing fantasy that generally involves either (1) nonhuman objects as in fetishism or bestiality, (2) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner as in sadism or masochism), or (3) children or other nonconsenting persons as in pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism, or obscene phone calls. This section discusses paraphilias in general. The following specific paraphilias are then discussed separately:
Paraphiliacs are fixated on a narrow range of sexual objects or situations that are not usually sexually arousing to others. Paraphilias exist with various degrees of severity, and the personnel security adjudicator dealing with a case of paraphilia must determine whether it is severe enough to affect reliability, trustworthiness, or job performance. Assessment by a mental health professional experienced in dealing with paraphilias may be needed to make this judgment.
Paraphilias are classified as mental illnesses in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). However, whether any specific behavior qualifies as a mental illness depends upon its severity. A severe paraphilia causes an individual to act compulsively, so behavior is out of control. The consequences of any compulsive behavior for professional performance are unpredictable. Some paraphilias such as pedophilia, exhibitionism, making obscene phone calls, voyeurism and frotteurism involve criminal offenses and should also be evaluated under Criminal Conduct.
Some paraphilias often exist in less severe forms that are not dysfunctional in any way, do not harm the individual or others, and do not entail criminal offenses. They may be limited to fantasy during masturbation or copulation. If acted out, they may be done in private and either alone or in a playful manner with a willing partner. They may be practiced occasionally by choice, rather than constantly by compulsion.94 Although unusual, such mild paraphilias generally do not cause an individual to be less reliable or trustworthy, nor do they indicate emotional disturbance or make a person more vulnerable to blackmail than many other types of personal secrets. Many fetishes, in particular, fall into this category.
"Imagining unusual sexual situations or behaviors to enhance stimulation or arousal is not uncommon."95 Some individuals become concerned when they have such fantasies and seek counseling for fear that they are "abnormal." However, sexual fantasies are generally not a problem as long as they are not acted out. The fantasies themselves are beyond conscious control; the failure to act on them indicates that behavior is under control. Fantasies may be a problem, however, if they are vivid and frequent and the individual feels threatened by them. This may be a concern, for example, if an individual has frequent fantasies of raping another person. In such cases, the fantasy may be symptomatic of an emotional problem that requires medical evaluation.
Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists find that when an individual has one paraphilia, other paraphilias are often also be present. A childhood trauma that may cause the paraphilia may also have other residual effects on psychological adjustment.96 Personality disturbances frequently accompany paraphilia. Symptoms of depression may develop and be accompanied by an increase in the frequency and intensity of the paraphilic behavior.97 Another concern is that paraphilias are not stable. They tend to become worse over time, or during periods of stress when sound judgment is most important. Many paraphilias are thought to be "virtually ineradicable" once established. 99
When an individual is arrested for paraphilic behavior, the known behavior may be only a small part of the full story, as many sex offenders either cannot or will not cooperate fully even during a clinical interview when immunity from prosecution is guaranteed. This was demonstrated when male sex offenders in an outpatient program were fitted with a device to measure their level of sexual arousal while shown movies or tapes of various sexual behaviors. When confronted with data that contradicted what they had reported during previous clinical interviews, 62% of the patients admitted to having previously concealed sexual interests and behaviors. As a consequence, it was learned that these patients had committed more different kinds of sex offenses, and far more offenses, than had previously been thought. 98
This study of sex offenders showed that most offenders had developed deviant sexual interests and fantasies by age 12 or 13. The age of onset is relevant, as it is generally believed that the earlier deviant behavior begins, the more difficult it is to treat. For half or more of the offenders, the age at which the offenses began was before age 15 for voyeurism, before age 16 for sex with younger children, before age 17 for frotteurism, and before age 18 for exhibitionism.98 A different study of sex offenders showed that about 90% have a history of more than one paraphilia at some point in their lives. Pedophiles might also engage in exhibitionism, sadism, or fetishism, for example. Engaging in one deviant behavior may break down the barriers to others. 95
No hard data are available on the prevalence of paraphilias in the general population. People with these disorders tend not to regard themselves as ill, and usually come to the attention of mental health professionals only when their behavior has brought them into conflict with sexual partners or the law. Judging from both the large commercial market in paraphilic pornography and paraphernalia and the abundance of web sites and online chat rooms devoted to such, the prevalence in the community is believed to be far higher than that indicated by statistics from clinical facilities.
Males are far more prone to paraphilias than females. For cases in which sexual masochism has developed to the point of paraphilia, for example, the sex ratio is estimated to be 20 males for each female. Many other paraphilias are rarely diagnosed in females.97 There appears to be no difference in the prevalence of paraphilias among homosexuals and heterosexuals. 100
There is no cure for paraphilia in the sense of complete eradication or reversal of its cause. It can be treated to ameliorate its consequences, but relapse and/or recidivism is high. In serious cases, it may be controlled effectively with a variety of drugs, including the drug trade-named Depo-Provera. These medications reduce the sex drive by drastically reducing the level of male hormone in the bloodstream and by acting directly on the pleasure centers of the brain which govern mating behavior. 101
In fetishism, sexual arousal occurs in response to some inanimate object or to a body part that is not primarily sexual in nature. The person with the fetish generally masturbates while holding, rubbing or smelling the fetish object, or asks the sexual partner to wear the object. Common fetish objects are women's clothing such as panties, brassieres, slips, stockings, shoes, or gloves. Other fetishists depend upon objects made of specific fetish materials, such as leather, rubber, silk or fur, or they are aroused by body parts such as hair, feet, legs, or buttocks.
Fetishism usually begins by adolescence, most commonly around age 16, although it may have its origin in some sexual experience in early childhood.101 Fetishists often collect the objects that turn them on and may go to great lengths to add just the right item to their collection. An example is cited of a man who had a fetish for women's high-heeled shoes. He gradually accumulated more than a thousand pairs which he catalogued and concealed from his wife in his attic. 102
In severe cases, the fetishist can be sexually aroused and reach orgasm only when the fetish is being used. In moderate cases, the fetish adds to the excitement but is not required. The man who is turned on by a woman in black, lacy lingerie is not a fetishist unless this is the primary focus of his sexual arousal.
As a general rule, the person with a fetish poses no danger to others and pursues the fetish in private. Fetishism may be a security concern in severe cases when the fetish prompts behavior that is illegal, compulsive or lacking in discretion. When fetishism is reported, the possible coexistence of other sexual or emotional problems should be evaluated.
Sadism involves intense sexual urges or fantasies that involve inflicting pain or humiliation on others. The counterpart of sadism is masochism, the sexual pleasure or gratification of having pain or suffering inflicted upon oneself, often consisting of sexual fantasies or urges for being beaten, humiliated, bound, tortured, or otherwise made to suffer, either as an enhancement to or a substitute for sexual pleasure. Sadomasochism is when the two go together, with one person inflicting pain on the other, and both parties gaining sexual pleasure from the interaction.
Humiliation may involve being required to crawl and bark like a dog, being kept in a cage, verbal abuse, or being urinated or defecated upon. Pain might be inflicted by tying a person down with rope or chains, or by whipping, pinching, biting, spanking, burning, electrical shocks, rape, strangulation, torture, mutilation, or lust-murder. All of these behaviors emphasize the transfer of power from a submissive to a dominant partner. The varied roles may be master/slave, guardian/child, employer/servant, or owner/owned, etc. Practitioners of sadomasochism "often report it is this consensual exchange of power that is erotic to them and the pain is just a method of achieving this power exchange." 103
Sadomasochism encompasses a wide range of activities from the benign to the bizarre and occasionally fatal. Arousal may come only from fantasy, without any need to act out the behavior. It may be limited to gentle and playful biting and spanking, or it may be a carefully controlled symbolic ritual with a trusted partner. At the other extreme, it may involve self-strangulation (which causes one or two accidental deaths per million persons per year) as a means of gaining sexual arousal through oxygen deprivation.104 Some engage in sadomasochistic behavior in all their sexual interactions, while others do it only occasionally. Masochism may be self-inflicted or inflicted by a cooperative partner. Sadism may be acted out with a willing partner or imposed by violence on an unwilling subject.
Sadomasochism has been reported in many different cultures and in many time periods. It is pictured in an ancient Indian marriage manual from 450 AD, for example.106 It is also found in other mammals. There are at least 24 different mammalian species that sometimes bite during intercourse, so some association between sex and pain probably must be considered biologically normal. 107
Although some sadomasochists engage in violence on unwilling partners, most do not. The psychology of the rapist is generally quite different from the sadist.105 Most sadomasochists seek willing partners, and for many the partner search is facilitated by joining a club for sadomasochists or frequenting a bar which caters to such persons. The clubs stress and teach safety, so serious injury is rare. 103 Masters et al. report that "sadomasochistic fantasies are very common, but most people who find such fantasies arousing have no desire to have the real-life experience." When these fantasies are acted out, it is generally mild or even symbolic behavior, with no real physical pain or violence involved. 108
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) defines sadism and masochism as mental disorders only if "the person has acted on these urges with a nonconsenting person, or is markedly distressed by them."104 Persons beginning to explore sadomasochistic desires often worry that their desire will escalate and lead them to cause serious injury or commit sex crimes. Actually, serious injury or crime caused by sadomasochism is rare, although the urge does escalate in some cases. Masters et al. report their impression that only rarely is sadomasochism a full-fledged paraphilia in the sense that it is the predominant or exclusive means of attaining sexual excitement. They also find that sadism and masochism occur as paraphilias mainly in men.109 Sadomasochists are found among homosexuals and bisexuals as well as heterosexuals. 103
Useful statistics on the more hard-core forms of sadomasochism are not available, but its prevalence is indicated by an entire industry which has evolved to support the practice through equipment supply catalogues (whips, chains, etc.), specialized magazines with picture spreads and how-to articles, bars, and "private" clubs.
The causes and psychological significance of sadomasochism are unclear. Noting that many masochists are men who occupy positions of high status and authority (such as executives, politicians, judges, and bankers), some experts theorize that private acts of submissiveness and degradation provide the masochists with an escape valve from their rigidly controlled public lives. Seeking sexual pain or humiliation may also be a way of atoning for sexual pleasure for a person who was raised to believe that sex is sinful and evil.
Conversely, sadists either may be seeking a means to bolster their self-esteem (by "proving" how powerful and dominant they are) or may be venting an internal hostility that they cannot discharge in other ways.111 Other theories hold that sadomasochism is a mechanism for dealing with the memories of childhood abuse or trauma. 112
From a security viewpoint, sadism and masochism raise several concerns. One is vulnerability to blackmail. This depends upon risk of exposure and the consequences if the specific behavior were exposed. Clearly, the senior officer who frequents a sadomasochism club to pick up partners who will chain and whip him, make him crawl and bark like a dog, or swaddle him in diapers presents an attractive blackmail target. On the other hand, the individual who engages in some symbolic sadomasochistic ritual with a willing spouse in private is not a security concern.
Emotional stability is another concern. Several limited attempts to use psychological testing to see if a sample of sadomasochists differs from a control group have shown no significant differences, but empirical research on this is still sketchy.114, 116 At least one study has suggested sadomasochistic behaviors may be related to emotional and personality disorders. 103
Many sadomasochists are unable to sustain a long-term sexual relationship. Clearly, the regular practitioner of sadomasochism has at least one unusual personality quirk. Any individual who has one mental/emotional problem is at greater risk than the general population for having other mental/emotional problems as well. When sadomasochistic tendencies are present, it is necessary to determine whether the individual has other emotional problems that might impact on security or job performance. Of particular concern is the judgment that sadism and masochism, like all compulsive behaviors, tend to get worse under stress when high performance is most important. 104
Pedophilia is a criminal activity with a high rate of recidivism, and treatment is often ineffective. It is, therefore, a serious security concern.
From a narrow psychiatric perspective, pedophilia is defined as recurrent, intense sexual urges and fantasies involving sexual activity with children prior to puberty, which generally means age 13 or younger.117 This includes only a small part of the group commonly known as child molesters, however. Other child molesters sometimes described as pedophiles focus on pubescent children, or engage in sexual acts with children only occasionally in response to opportunity or when sexual outlets with adults are blocked for some reason. The following paragraphs apply to pedophilia as a narrowly defined psychiatric disorder.
Given the stigma attached to pedophilia and ambiguities in definition, researchers have been unable to assemble valid statistics on its prevalence in the population as a whole.115 National statistics on arrests for sex offenses are not broken down by type of offense. Additionally, active pedophiles are unlikely to pursue treatment, and many more pedophiles simply resist their urges to touch a child or else do so in a manner so discreet that they are never detected.118 Based on the large Internet market for child pornography and pedophilia-related materials, pedophilia may be more prevalent that previously believed. This is discussed further under Pedophiles and the Internet.
Pedophilia is most common in males, although it does occasionally occur in women.119 Many pedophiles are attracted to children of a specific age, such as girls aged eight to ten. Those attracted to boys usually prefer slightly older children. Attraction to girls is more common than to boys, although some pedophiles are sexually aroused by both young boys and young girls. 117
The type of activity engaged in by pedophiles varies greatly. It may be limited to undressing and observing the child, or it may include fondling the child, exposing themselves or masturbating in the presence of the child, fellatio, cunnilingus, or intercourse. The activity is often rationalized as having "educational value" for the child, or as being part of a caring and loving relationship with the child.
Pedophiles are most commonly found in three distinct age groups: adolescents, mid-to-late thirties, and over age fifty. Many pedophiles have a history of being sexually abused as children. Estimates of the percentage who were abused themselves as children range widely from 28% to 80%. 108
Pedophiles may have marginal personality disorders that set them apart from the normal population. Although one study found them to have no distinct psychopathology, others in treatment showed a high incidence of mood and anxiety disorders. A study of incarcerated pedophiles found that they were slightly more neurotic and slightly more psychotic, higher in trait anxiety and anger, and lower in self-esteem than nonsex-offenders. Although some psychological differences are evident in pedophiles, not enough is known to develop a simple personality profile that would differentiate pedophiles from the general population. 120
The popular stereotype of a child molester as a stranger who lurks around schools and playgrounds with a bag of candy is only partially correct. In 2000, 93% of children who were molested knew their abuser: 34% were family members and 59% were acquaintances.121 In only about 10% of the cases was the sexual act an impulsive action with a stranger as the victim. In the most common form of pedophilia, the pedophile exploits a child already known to him, the action is not impulsive, and it often begins with a form of courtship in which the pedophile befriends the child with stories, games, and disarming companionship.
In some cases, the sexual contact is a form of incest. This type of pedophile generally treats his victims very well, as he must gain their confidence and ensure they do not tell others. This type of pedophile often claims that his behavior is based on a mutual, loving relationship with the child, yet refuses to stop the sexual behavior at the request of the child. Another type of pedophile, and the least common type, has a history of antisocial behavior and may feel a strong hostility toward women. This type may assault his victim and cause severe physical harm. 108
Many pedophiles victimize a great many children before they are caught. One study found a ratio of only one arrest per 30 acts of child molestation, and that child molesters often engage in a variety of deviant behaviors. Many who molest young girls also molest young boys. Many who molest children outside their family also engage in incest within their family.122 It is common practice for pedophiles to claim that they were drunk as an excuse to reduce the stigma and lessen the chances of punishment. They may convince others that instead of needing punishment or psychiatric treatment they simply need to stop drinking. 123
In 2000, 89% of sex offense cases tried in U.S. district courts resulted in conviction, with 85% entering a "guilty" plea. Although statistics do not delineate child sex offenses from adult sex offenses, we expect the disposition of cases to be similar. This high rate of guilty pleas may indicate significant plea bargaining, meaning that the cases that actually make it to court have ample evidence for conviction and that a jury trial would only result in a guilty verdict with a harsher penalty. Unfortunately, it appears that the majority of arrests for sex offenses do not result in prosecution. 124
As the Internet has become increasingly accessible since the mid-1990s, so has child pornography and "hidden" access to child victims. The Internet allows pedophiles instant access to both children and to other pedophiles worldwide. Such access has led to web sites devoted to open discussion of adult-child sexual interaction and allows pedophiles to congregate online for the sole purpose of rationalizing and motivating their predatory inclinations.125 Also see Possession of Child Pornography.
The Internet also provides hidden avenues for luring children into relationships via chat rooms and open forums. Some web sites have been developed to tell children that it is "OK," or even proper, to have sexual relationships with adults, while others post information about specific children for pedophiles to view. 125
Since the late 1990s, the FBI and other law enforcement agencies have stepped up efforts to lure pedophiles online, trap them, and arrest them. The Children's Internet Protection Act of 2001 was approved with a goal of ensuring that all children are provided Internet access free from the threat of pedophiles and that parents, teachers, guardians, and mentors constantly monitor their children's online interactions in order to deter adult-child online sexual interaction.
The voyeur has repeated, intense sexual urges to observe unsuspecting people who are either naked, in the process of undressing, or engaging in sexual activity. The secretive, illegal nature of the peeping is an essential element of the sexual excitement. As a result, voyeurs, or peeping Toms as they are often called, are not particularly attracted to nudist camps, burlesque shows, or nude beaches where nudity is accepted.
There are a number of parallels between voyeurism and exhibitionism. Like the exhibitionist, the voyeur is not seeking sexual activity with the person observed. Orgasm is often produced by masturbation during the peeping, or later in response to the memory of what was observed. Voyeurism is found mainly among young men and diminishes greatly toward middle age. Many voyeurs have trouble forming normal heterosexual relationships, so voyeurism becomes the preferred or exclusive means of sexual arousal.
Video voyeurism, using still or video cameras, has become more popular in recent years as technology has allowed cameras that can be hidden virtually anywhere. In most cases that have been prosecuted, cameras were planted in an apartment or bathroom so that the voyeur could observe the victim dressing and undressing, carrying out natural functions, or having sex.126 One such case involved a restaurant owner who was found guilty of hiding a video camera in the women's restroom of his business to observe his patrons in various states of dress as they used the restroom. 127
Little is known about the prevalence of voyeurism. In one study, only 2.4% of college women in the U.S. reported being the victim of a voyeur in the late 1990s. It is, of course, unknown how many women were watched or filmed without being aware of it.128 What is known about voyeurism suggests either: (1) that voyeurism is not a common means of sexual fulfillment, or (2) that the majority of voyeurs are very good at remaining hidden.
Voyeurism is an illegal activity with risk of arrest. Arrested voyeurs are often dealt with more harshly than exhibitionists as they trespass on others' property, are close to victims' windows, etc. Although most voyeurs are harmless, some have been known to commit rape, burglary, or arson. 129, 130
Exhibitionism is the repeated, intense, sexual urge to expose one's genitals to a stranger. This is, of course, illegal, and many exhibitionists have long arrest records before they are eventually referred for mandatory treatment. For exhibitionists and voyeurs, the ratio of arrests to commission of such acts is estimated at 1 to 150. 122 As with the other paraphilias, valid data on prevalence in the population are not available, although exhibitionism is believed to account for one-third to two-thirds of sex offenses in England, Wales, Canada, and the United States.131 Additionally, 4.8% of college women across the United States have reported being the victim of exhibitionists. 128
As a general rule, the exhibitionist makes no attempt to form a relationship with the stranger or to engage the stranger in any sexual activity, so there is no physical danger to the victim. In many cases, sexual pleasure is derived from seeing the victim's shock or fear, and there is little pleasure when the victim shows no visible reaction. There are several exceptional cases of an exhibitionist being angered to the point of attacking the victim because the victim ignored the exhibitionist.122 Very rarely, exhibitionism may be combined with psychological problems that lead to sexual assault. 131
Exhibitionism is found almost exclusively in males, although female cases have been reported. Most exhibitionists are inhibited or even impotent in other forms of sexual activity. The disorder usually starts before age 18 and is most common among men in their twenties. Frequency diminishes during the thirties and is much less common after age 40.
One study found that the typical exhibitionist is married, has above average intelligence, is satisfactorily employed, and shows no other evidence of serious emotional problems.132 The absence of other emotional problems has been a consistent finding in a number of studies. 130
Historically, the typical exhibitionist has made little effort to evade apprehension, often "performing" repeatedly on the same street corner or in a parked car which is easily identifiable. The risk of being caught may be an important part of the sexual excitement, leading some exhibitionists into behavior almost guaranteed to result in arrest. Police catch more exhibitionists than any other category of sex offender. 129
The exhibitionist engages in high-risk, illegal behavior that is out of control. This is a definite security concern. Even if arrested only once, there is a strong likelihood that he has done it many more times without being reported or arrested. One study reported that as many as 91% of exhibitionists repeat their offense within four years if left untreated.131 Effective treatment is possible, however. In the case of one of the best treatment programs in the country, recidivism after treatment is rare. 133
Mooning is a form of exhibitionism generally classified as a juvenile prank. It probably has no security significance unless it is part of a pattern of socially immature behavior that continues beyond the college years.
Obscene telephone calling is less common today than it was in past decades. Two studies of female undergraduates in 1967 and 1968 determined that from 50% to 75% had been the recipients of unwanted obscene calls. In 2000, this number had decreased to less than 25%. 128
This marked decline in obscene phone calls can likely be attributed to better call-tracing technology and one specific new home phone technology: CallerID. Although there are ways to circumvent CallerID technology, it is no longer possible to pick up the telephone and place a call without a high likelihood of being identified by the recipient.
Each obscene phone caller generally has many victims, as numbers are commonly chosen at random from the phone book or by chance dialing. The attraction of the obscene phone call to the caller, who is almost always male, is that he can impose himself without exposing himself. The telephone connection offers intimacy and proximity while preserving anonymity, and little energy is lost in searching for a victim. If one phone call fails to elicit the desired response (often only shock), it is easy to just dial another number.
From the little that is known, the motivations and personality make-up of obscene phone callers appear to be similar to exhibitionists, and possibly voyeurs. The action is an expression of aggression and hostility toward women in general but, like the exhibitionist, the obscene phone caller is generally not considered dangerous. Both have difficulty in forming interpersonal relationships with the opposite sex. 131, 133
Today, it is possible to make sexually explicit calls legally to phone numbers advertised on late night television and in many magazines. One New York City number attracted 500,000 calls per day during 1983. Current statistics on these types of calls are unavailable. United States phone company regulations since the 1980s have made phone sex calls somewhat more difficult to make. Many international organizations, however, have recognized the market for such call services and have picked up where American companies left off, some offering better prices and more sexually explicit conversation.134 The mentality of those who make obscene calls to strangers is different from those who call "dial-a-porn" numbers. It is not known whether the availability of these legal commercial lines has reduced the frequency of illegal and unwanted obscene calls to strangers. 135
Sexual contact with animals is called bestiality. Sexual contact with an animal may be pursued as a convenient substitute for heterosexual relations when the animal is more readily accessible than a human partner. It may also be the result of curiosity or a desire for novelty. As such, bestiality, though unconventional, is not necessarily a paraphilia. It becomes a paraphilia, known as zoophilia, only if it develops into the preferred means of sexual arousal.
As a general rule, sexual contact with an animal is a passing phase in a person's sexual history. It is replaced by intercourse with a human partner as soon as that is available. If the bestiality occurs during youth and infrequently, it does not indicate personality disturbance. In rare cases, however, the animal experience has been so extensive that one becomes conditioned to it as the principal source of arousal. In those cases, it may preclude formation of a normal sexual relationship, and the diagnosis of zoophilia is warranted.
Zoophilia leads to a lifestyle of sexual interaction with animals. A 2003 study by C. Williams and M. Weinberg is the most comprehensive study of zoophilia to date. Williams and Weinberg studied the sexual behaviors of 114 self-defined zoophiles through extensive surveys and interviews. The study was not intended to judge the psychological stability of participants, but to study their sexual identities, interpersonal interactions, sexual behavior, and to see if they understood the sociocultural contexts in which this behavior occurs. 136
Participants who volunteered for the study understood they would be meeting face-to-face with the researchers. All participants were white males, aged 18-70 with a median age of 27. Sixty-four percent were single and had never married and 83% had at least some college education. Forty-five percent were computer technicians, 77% had a religious background, although 69% said they were "not at all" religious. Thirty-six percent lived in a large city, 34% in a rural community, and 30% in small to medium sized towns or cities.
Most zoophiles in this study stated that they had mutual and loving relationships with their animal partners, and that they preferred animals to humans because animals are always "friendly and nonjudgmental" and do not try to "manipulate and control" relationships. Half came in contact with other zoophiles through the Internet, which apparently was a major source for helping them find their sexual identity and for meeting other zoophiles who provided moral and other types of support.
Two-thirds of the men in this study reported that their first sexual contact with an animal occurred prior to age 17, and about 50% reported "strong" sexual interests in humans. Another 17% had never had sex with another human.
All zoophiles in this study reported that they hid their behavior from the public and only shared their interest in animals with other zoophiles. Many reported an actual fear of discovery, which is a very important security concern. Zoophiles have a very hidden lifestyle, known only to those with the same interests, which makes them distinctly vulnerable to threats of coercion and outside influence should their "hidden" lifestyle be discovered.
One leading researcher has identified over 40 different forms of paraphilia.137 Frotteurism is sexual arousal from rubbing one's body, often the genitals, against the body of a fully clothed stranger or fondling breasts in a crowded area such as an elevator or subway. Necrophilia is arousal from viewing or having sexual contact with a corpse. Coprophilia and urophilia refer to sexual excitement derived from contact with feces and urine. In klismaphilia, the preferred or exclusive means of sexual excitement is enemas. Other sexual addictions may involve diapers or insects crawling over the body.
Readers interested in researching a specific subject in greater depth may wish to start by ordering a bibliography on the subject from the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Information Service, 313 Morrison Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, telephone (812) 855-7686.
General information on sexuality and sexual health may be obtained by contacting the following:
Society for Human
1122 East Pike Street
Seattle, WA 98122-3934
Web site: http://www.sexuality.org/
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