Army 1990 - 2008

2004 - RYAN GIBSON ANDERSON, 26, a Specialist and tank crewman in the Washington National Guard, was arrested on February 12, 2004, and charged with five counts of attempting to provide aid and information to the enemy, Al Qaeda. Anderson converted from his Lutheran upbringing to Islam in college while attending Washington State University, where he studied Middle Eastern military history and graduated with a B.A. in 2002. In late 2003, as his National Guard unit was preparing to deploy to the war in Iraq, Anderson went onto Internet chat rooms and sent emails trying to make contact with Al Qaeda cells in the U.S. His emails were noticed by an amateur anti-terrorist Internet monitor, Shannen Rossmiller, a city judge in Montana who had begun monitoring Islamist Jihad websites in an effort to contribute to homeland defense after the 9/11 attacks. After she identified him by tracing his Arab pseudonym, Amir Abdul Rashid, Rossmiller passed along to the FBI her suspicions about Anderson. In a joint DOJ and FBI sting operation conducted in late January 2004, Anderson was videotaped offering to persons he thought were Al Qaeda operatives, sketches of M1A1 and M1A2 tanks, a computer disk with his identifying information and photo, and information about Army weapons systems, including “the exact caliber of round needed to penetrate the windshield and kill the driver of an up-armored Humvee.” At his Army court martial the defense argued that Anderson suffered from various mental conditions including bipolar disorder and a high-performing type of autism, which led to role playing, exaggeration of his abilities, and repeated attempts to gain social acceptance. The prosecution argued that what he did constituted treason. The court-martial convicted Anderson on all five counts and on 3 September, 2004, and sentenced him to life in prison with possibility of parole, demotion to the rank of private, and a dishonorable discharge.

New York Times 13 Feb 2004, “Guardsman Taken Into Custody and Examine or Qaeda Tie”
New York Post 12 Jul 2004, “Lady Who ‘Nets Spies’”
Seattle Times 31 Aug 2004, “Guardsman Anderson Accused of ‘Betrayal’ as Court Martial Begins”
Seattle Post-Intelligencer 2 Sep 2004, “Accused GI Called Bipolar, ‘Social Misfit’”
New York Times 4 Sep 2004, “Guardsman Given Life in Prison for Trying to Help Al Qaeda”

1998 - DAVID SHELDON BOONE, a former Army signals analyst for the National Security Agency, was arrested 10 October 1998, and charged with selling Top Secret documents to agents of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1991. Compromised documents including a 600-page manual describing US reconnaissance programs and a listing of nuclear targets in Russia. Boone was arrested at a suburban Virginia hotel after being lured from his home in Germany to the United States in a FBI sting operation. He had worked for NSA for three years before being reassigned to Augsburg, Germany, in 1988, and retired from the Army in 1991. In October 1988, the same month that he separated from his wife and children, Boone walked into the Soviet Embassy in Washington and offered his services. According to an FBI counterintelligence agent’s affidavit, Boone was under “severe financial and personal difficulties” when he began spying. His former wife had garnished his Army sergeant’s pay, leaving him with only $250 a month. According to the Federal complaint, Boone met with his handler about four times a year from late 1988 until June 1990, when his access to classified information was suspended because of “his lack of personal and professional responsibility." He held a Top Secret clearance from 1971 and gained access to SCI information in 1976. He is alleged to have received payments totaling more than $60,000 from the KGB. Boone was indicted on three counts: one for conspiracy to commit espionage and the other two related to his alleged passing of two Top Secret documents to his Soviet handler. On 18 December, Boon pleaded guilty to conspiracy, and on 26 February 1999 he was sentenced to 24 years and four months in prison. Under a plea agreement Boone was also required to forfeit $52,000 and a hand-held scanner he used to copy documents.

Washington Post 6 Nov 1998, “Ex-NSA Indicted for Spying”
Washington Post 9 Nov 1998, “Trial Set for Ex-NSA Analyst”
Washington Post 27 Feb 1999, "Ex-NSA Worker Gets 24 Years for Spying"

1997 - JAMES MICHAEL CLARK, a private investigator, was arrested 4 October 1997 along with KURT ALLEN STAND and THERESE MARIE SQUILLACOTE, and charged with spying for East Germany. Clark was recruited by his friend Kurt Stand in 1976 when both were members of the Young Workers Liberation League while attending the University of Wisconsin. Media sources state that a 1975 FBI report describing Clark's participation in the youth arm of the Communist party was the basis on which his subsequent application to the CIA for employment was denied. However, in 1986 Clark received a Secret clearance for his work for a private firm doing contract work for the government. And in 1992, the Army renewed his access after hiring him as a civilian analyst. According to news reports, as a defense contractor at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in Boulder, Colorado, in the 1970s, Clark had access to classified information on chemical warfare. He was also accused of giving East Germany classified State and Commerce Department documents about the Soviet leadership, the Soviet’s strategic nuclear doctrine, and problems in the military of Soviet bloc countries. He reportedly told an undercover agent that, under the guise of needing help with a research report, he obtained these classified documents—including at least one classified as Top Secret—from two State Department employees. Clark admittedly passed information to his German handlers in the form of microfiche. Law enforcement officials and court documents describe Clark as a radical who fell into spying from 1979 to 1989 as an extension of his Marxist ideology. He received at total of $17,500 from East Germany and spent much of it traveling to meet his handler in Germany, Mexico and Canada. Clark was convicted on 3 June 1998 on a charge of conspiracy to commit espionage and on 4 December was sentenced to 12 years and seven months in prison. This reduced sentence was a result of his testimony at the trial of Stand and Squillacote that aided in their conviction.

Washington Post 7 Oct 1997, “Three Former Campus Leftists Held in VA on Espionage Charges”
Washington Post 4 Jun 1998, “Falls Church Man Pleads Guilty to Passing Secrets to East Germany”
New York Times 5 Dec 1998, "Spy, in Plea Agreement, Is Given 12-Year Sentence"

1993 - JEFFERY EUGENE GREGORY, a US Army Staff Sergeant was arrested 29 April 1993 at Fort Richardson, Alaska, resulting from a joint investigation between the FBI and the US Army Intelligence and Security Command. Gregory was one of several members of a spy ring operating out of the 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach, Germany, in the mid-1980s that sold US and NATO military secrets to Hungary and Czechoslovakia when those countries were in the Soviet Bloc. German authorities convicted the ring-leader, former US Army sergeant CLYDE LEE CONRAD, of high treason in 1990 and sentenced him to life in prison. In 1991, another ring member RODERICK JAMES RAMSAY, also a former Army sergeant stationed in Bad Kreuznach, was sentenced to 36 years in prison by an American court for his involvement in the network. Clyde Conrad recruited Ramsay who is believed to have then recruited others, including Gregory. According to the Federal complaint against Gregory, while assigned to the 8th Infantry Division in Germany from March 1984 to October 1986, “he helped procure extremely sensitive, classified documents relating to national defense, for transmittal to one or more foreign powers.” At that time, Gregory was a staff driver at Bad Kreuznach, West Germany, and helped maintain the commanding general's mobile command center. He was also in charge of updating maps showing military maneuvers and had access to classified messages and correspondence. According to an FBI official, Gregory once took a military flight bag stuffed with 20 pounds of classified documents. The documents included “war plans” for the US and NATO. On 28 March 1994, Gregory pleaded guilty to espionage charges. In June, 1994, Gregory, along with Sgt. JEFFREY STEPHEN RONDEAU, another member of the espionage ring, was sentenced by a military court to 18 years in prison.

New York Times 2 May 1993, “Fourth Army Sergeant Held in Espionage Case”
Huntsville Times 2 May 1993, “4th Army Sgt. Arrested in Alleged Espionage Ring in Germany”

1996 - ERIC O. JENOTT, Army PFC Eric O. Jenott, 20, assigned to duty as a communication switch operator at the 35th Signal Brigade at Ft. Bragg, North Carolina, since 26 June 1996, was charged on 21August 1996 with espionage, damaging military property, larceny, and unauthorized access to government computer systems. Specifically, Jenott was accused of providing a classified system password to a Chinese national located at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, who returned to China prior to the arrest. According to Jenott, the password was not in fact Secret and charges related to his penetration of defense computer systems stemmed from his attempt to be helpful when he discovered a weakness in an encoded Army computer system. However, he did admit to having been an active hacker for several years and to breaking into Navy, Air Force, and the Defense Secretary’s systems before he joined the Army in 1994. While at Ft. Bragg, Jenott demonstrated to his superior officers that he was able to hack into a US Army system that was supposedly secure. On 3 January 1997, a court-martial found Jenott not guilty of espionage, but guilty of lesser offenses in his original charge. He was sentenced to three years in prison, less the six months already served awaiting trial.

Fayetteville Observer-Times 21 Aug 1996, “Army Accuses Fort Bragg Soldier of Computer Espionage”
Chicago Tribune 22 Aug 1996, “GI Hacker Is Charged with Spying.”
Raleigh News & Observer 9 Dec 1996, “Court-martial to Begin in Computer Spying Case”

2008 - BEN-AMI KADISH, 84, was arrested 22 April 2008 on four counts. Three were subsequently dropped, and in December 2008 he pleaded guilty to the one: conspiracy to act as an unregistered agent of the government of Israel. Kadish, a mechanical engineer, worked for the US Army’s Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center at the Picatinny Arsenal in Dover, New Jersey, from 1963 until 1990. On numerous occasions from 1980 to 1985, Kadish provided classified documents related to the US military, including some relating to US missile defense systems, to an agent of Israel, Yossi Yagur. Yagur, an Israeli citizen, was consul for science affairs at the Israeli Consulate General in Manhattan between 1980 and 1985. He was also Jonathan Pollard’s handler. (Pollard is currently serving a life sentence for espionage on behalf of Israel.) Yagur would provide Kadish with shopping lists of classified documents for Kadish to obtain from the US Army library at Picatinny. The documents—some 50 to 100—concerned nuclear weapons, the F-15 jet program and the Patriot missile system. Kadish stopped passing information toYagur in 1985 but kept in contact with him over the years via telephone and email and visited him in Israel in 2004. There is no evidence in open sources that Kadish was acting for financial gain; rather, he acted out of a desire to help Israel. Kadish was born in Connecticut and is a US citizen. He grew up in Palestine and served in both the British and American military during World War II. At the time of his arrest he was living with his wife in a retirement community in New Jersey. The FBI arrived on Kadish’s doorstep in March 2008 to interview him. The following day, Kadish called Yagur, now also retired and living in Israel, and was instructed by Yagur to deny any involvement. (It is not clear from open sources what prompted the FBI visit to Kadish in 2008, 25 years after his activities for Israel, although it is speculated that there may be a connection between Kadish and the Pollard case and that there may have been a larger Israeli spy ring in the US in the mid-1980s than originally thought.) On 29 May 2009, he eventually was fined $50,000, but not given prison time. n.d., “Counterintelligence – Espionage – Spy Case – Kadish, Ben-Ami”
Washington Post 23 Apr 2008, “Ex-Prosecutor: New Arrest Shows Reach of 1980s Spy Ring”
US Attorney, Southern District of New York, Press Release 30 Dec 2008, “Former U.S. Army Arsenal Employee Pleads Guilty to Conspiracy to Act as Unregistered Agent of Israel”
Washington Post 31 Dec 2008, “Retiree Pleads Guilty to Giving U.S. Secrets to Israel in the 1980s”

1993 - STEVEN JOHN LALAS, a former State Department communications officer stationed with the embassy in Athens, was arrested in Northern Virginia on 3 May 1993 and charged with passing sensitive military information to Greek officials. Although Lalas originally claimed that he had been recruited by a Greek military official in 1991 and feared for the welfare of relatives living in Greece were he not to cooperate, authorities later stated that he began spying for the Greek government in 1977 when he was with the US Army. It is estimated that he passed 700 highly classified documents, including papers dealing with plans and readiness for US military strategy in the Balkans and a US assessment of Greece's intentions toward the former Yugoslavia. Athens was Lalas' fourth communications posting with the State Department. He had previously served in Belgrade, Istanbul, and in Taiwan. During his espionage career he earned a steady income stealing, then selling, DIA reports about troop strength, political analyses and military discussions contained in cables between the US Embassy in Athens and the White House, FBI communications about counterterrorism efforts, and the names and job descriptions of CIA agents stationed overseas. Greek handlers allegedly paid him $20,000 to provide about 240 documents from 1991 to 1993. The government first learned of the espionage activities in February 1993, when an official of the Greek Embassy in Washington made a statement to a State Department officer indicating that he knew the contents of a Secret communication from the US Embassy in Athens to the State Department. Lalas was later identified (through a video monitoring system) stealing documents intended for destruction. In June 1993 Lalas pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to commit espionage and on 16 September was sentenced to 14 years in Federal prison without possibility of parole. Prosecutors had recommended the 14-year sentence in return for Lalas' promise to reveal what documents he turned over and to whom. The full extent of his espionage activity was revealed prior to sentencing only after he failed two FBI polygraph examinations. Lalas is of Greek descent, but was born in the US.

Washington Post 4 May 1993, “Va. Arrest Made in a Spy Case From Greece”
New York Times 4 May 1993, “Am. Employee at Embassy in Athens Arrested as Possible Spy”
New York Times 6 May 1993, “US Embassy Employee Sold Secrets to Greeks, F.B.I. Says”
Washington Post 16 Sep 1993, “A 14-Year Sentence for Selling Secrets”

1996 - ROBERT STEPHAN LIPKA, former National Security Agency staff member, was taken into custody on 23 February 1996 at his home in Millersville, Pennsylvania, and charged with committing espionage while working as a communications clerk from 1964 to 1967. An Army enlisted man between the age of 19 and 22, Lipka worked in the NSA central communications room and reportedly provided the KGB with a constant stream of highly classified reports. He is believed to have caused extensive damage to US intelligence collection activities. According to James Bamford, writing in the Los Angeles Times, since Lipka provided Top Secret information to the KGB during the war in Vietnam, he may have been responsible for the loss of American lives. He is said to have used dead drops along the C&O Canal near the Potomac River in Washington and was paid between $500 and $1000 per delivery. Lipka left NSA in 1967 and stopped meeting with his KGB handlers in 1974. He became a suspect in 1993 as a result of information believed to have been provided to the FBI by his ex-wife. His role in espionage was confirmed by FBI agents posing as Russian contacts. According to an FBI spokesman, while the government was aware of a major security breach in the 1960s, it had not been able to identify Lipka as a suspect until it had received the additional information. It is believed that Lipka is the young soldier described in the autobiography of former KGB major general Kalugin who tells of a walk-in in the mid-1960s who was interested in money. According to Kalugin, the documents that the soldier passed included Top Secret NSA reports to the White House and copies of communications on US troop movements around the world. The price reportedly paid by the Soviets during the period of his betrayal was $27,000. On 23 May 1997, Lipka pleaded guilty to one count of espionage in exchange for a jail term of no more than 18 years. On 24 September, he was sentenced to serve a term of 18 years in Federal prison.

Washington Post 24 Feb 1996, “FBI Arrests Ex-Soldier as Mysterious KGB Spy in Supersecret NSA”
Los Angeles Times 3 Mar 1996, “Has a 30-year Mystery Unraveled?”
Wall Street Journal 21 Nov 1996, “How the FBI Broke Spy Case That Baffled Agency for 30 Years”
Baltimore Sun 24 May 1997, “Ex-clerk at NSA Is Guilty of Spying; Former Soldier Sold Secret Documents to Soviets in Mid-1960s”

2005 - ALMALIKI NOUR, in 1998 used a false identity on forms applying for US citizenship. In 2003 he used the same alias to get a position as an Arabic translator for the L-3 Titan Corporation, which provides translation services in Iraq for US military personnel. Once working for Titan, he was granted Secret and Top Secret security clearances based on the same false identity. Later, in 2004 during his second year-long assignment as a translator and interpreter in an intelligence unit of the 82nd Airborne Division in Iraq in the Sunni Triangle, Nour took several classified documents from the US Army without authorization. These included the coordinates of insurgents’ locations which the US Army was targeting and plans for protecting Sunnis on their pilgrimage to Mecca. He also photographed a classified battle map of a base near Najaf. In September 2005, and apparently in response to some security concern, the FBI and military investigators first interviewed Nour in Iraq. He was arrested the same month at his apartment in Brooklyn, New York, and was charged the next month with lying to federal officials on three occasions: on his naturalization application (he became naturalized February 2000), on his application for a security clearance (2003), and in interviews connected with the renewal of his clearance. It is unclear what specifically brought Nour to the investigators’ attention, but he had originally claimed to have been a Lebanese born in 1960, that he had never married, and that his parents had been killed in Beirut, all untrue. After his arrest, Nour admitted that he was actually Moroccan, born in 1959 and married, and that his parents were alive and living in Morocco. A search of his apartment by the FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force turned up a Moroccan power of attorney and other records showing that he had wired large sums of money (equal to a year’s salary) to a woman in Morocco believed to be his wife. It was during this search that investigators found the classified documents taken from Iraq. An official for the New York FBI said: “He lied to attain his U.S. citizenship. He lied to gain employment with a government contractor. And he lied to obtain security clearances. Through serial deception an eminently untrustworthy person inveigled his way into a position of trust, and he abused that trust.” Nour was not charged with terrorism or espionage. He had first pleaded guilty in December 2005 to using a false identity to acquire US citizenship. Later, on 14 February 2007, he pleaded guilty to being in unauthorized possession of classified documents. On 19 May 2008, he was sentenced to 10 years and one month in prison and was stripped of his citizenship.

Washington Times 22 Oct 2005, “Linguist in Iraq Accused of Fraud”
Washington Post 15 Feb 2007, “Translator Who Faked Identity Pleads Guilty to Having Secret Data”
Department of Justice 19 May 2008, “U.S. Army Translator Sentenced to 121 Months’ Imprisonment…”

1990 - RODERICK JAMES RAMSAY, a former US Army sergeant, was arrested in Tampa, Florida, on 7 June 1990 and charged with conspiracy to commit espionage. Ramsay joined the Army in 1981 and was transferred to West Germany in June 1983 where he was recruited by then-Army Sgt. CLYDE LEE CONRAD. (Conrad was sentenced to life imprisonment in May 1990 for treason.) Ramsay received $20,000 for selling military secrets that could have caused the collapse of NATO—Top Secret plans for the defense of Central Europe, location and use of NATO tactical nuclear weapons, and the ability of NATO's military communications—that were passed to Hungary and Czechoslovakia. An FBI official said, “It's one of the most serious breaches ever—it's unprecedented what went over to the other side. The ability to defend ourselves is neutralized because they have all our plans.” Ramsay initially used a 35-millimeter camera to photograph classified documents, but then switched to more effective videotape. He reportedly recorded a total of about 45 hours of videotape. Ramsay is said to have a high IQ, is multilingual, and has the “ability to recall minute details, facts and figures from hundreds of volumes of documents.” The FBI described him as “brilliant but erratic.” In West Germany he worked as a clerk-typist in the 8th Infantry Division. When arrested he was unemployed, living sometimes at his mother's house and sometimes in his car. In September 1991 he pleaded guilty and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors. On 28 August 1992 he was sentenced to 36 years in prison. The sentence reflects his cooperation with investigators. According to the FBI, this case was the most extensive espionage investigation in the history of the FBI and considered to be the largest US espionage conspiracy case in modern history.

Los Angeles Times 9 Jun 1990, “Alleged Spy Called Brilliant, Erratic”
Washington Times 29 Aug 1992 “Spying Sergeant Gets 36 Years”
DoD Security Institute, Security Awareness Bulletin, No. 1-97, January 1997, “Profile of a Spy”

1992 - JEFFREY STEPHEN RONDEAU, a US Army sergeant stationed at Bangor, Maine, was arrested in Tampa, Florida, on 22 October 1992, and charged with espionage for providing Army and NATO defense secrets, including tactical nuclear weapons plans, to intelligence agents of Hungary and Czechoslovakia from 1985 through 1988. Rondeau was allegedly part of the Conrad spy ring which operated out of the 8th Infantry Division, Bad Kreuznach, Germany, in the mid-1980s. A German court convicted former US Army sergeant CLYDE LEE CONRAD of high treason in 1990 and sentenced him to life in prison. The inquiry into Rondeau's involvement was aided by the cooperation of RODERICK JAMES RAMSAY. In 1991, Ramsey, also a former Army sergeant stationed in Germany, was sentenced to 36 years in prison by an American court for his involvement in the ring. As a recognition signal, Ramsay reportedly gave Rondeau a torn dollar bill to use when dealing with others in the plot. The US Attorney for the Middle District of Florida said, “The espionage charge in this case is especially serious because it related to the allied defense of Central Europe including the use of tactical nuclear weapons and military communications.” The three-count indictment of Rondeau charged that he conspired with Conrad, Ramsay, and others to “copy, steal, photograph, and videotape” documents and sell them to Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The indictment did not specify what amount of money he may have received. On 28 March 1994, Rondeau pleaded guilty to espionage. In June, 1994, Rondeau, along with Sgt. JEFFERY EUGENE GREGORY, another member of the espionage ring, was sentenced by a military court to 18 years in prison.

Houston Chronicle 23 Oct 1992, “US Soldier is Charged with Spying”
Atlanta Constitution 23 Oct 1992, “Soldier Accused of Selling NATO Plans to Communists”

1996 - PHILLIP TYLER SELDON, a former Pentagon civilian employee, pleaded guilty on 7 August 1996 in Alexandria, Virginia, to passing classified documents to a Salvadoran air force officer while on active military duty in El Salvador as a US Army captain. After leaving the Army, Seldon took a civilian job with the Department of Defense. According to court documents, Seldon gave the Salvadoran three packets of documents between November 1992 and July 1993. None of the material was reported to have exceeded the Secret level. Seldon claimed that he had met the Salvadoran officer while working as an intelligence advisor, and he believed that the officer had the appropriate clearance. This information came to light in the course of a polygraph examination as Seldon was applying for a position with the CIA. On 8 November, Seldon was sentenced by a US District court to two years in prison.

Washington Post 9 Nov 1996, “Ex-Pentagon Worker Given 2 Years for Passing Secrets”

1991 - ALBERT T. SOMBOLAY, a specialist 4th class with the Army artillery, pleaded guilty in July 1991 to espionage and aiding the enemy. He was tried by military judge in Baumholder, Germany, and sentenced to confinement at hard labor for 34 years, reduction to E-1, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and dishonorable discharge. Sombolay was born in Zaire, Africa. He became a US citizen in 1978 and entered the Army in 1985 as a cannon crewman. In December 1990, assigned to the 8th Infantry Division in Baumholder, Germany, he contacted the Iraqi and Jordanian embassies to volunteer his services in support of the “Arab cause.” To the Jordanian Embassy in Brussels he passed information on US troop readiness and promised more information to include videotapes of US equipment and positions in Saudi Arabia. He told the Jordanians that he would be deployed to Saudi Arabia and could provide them useful information. To the Iraqi Embassy in Bonn, Germany, he offered the same services, but the embassy did not respond. On 29 December, Sombolay's unit was deployed to Saudi Arabia, as part of Desert Shield, without him. Still in Germany, Sombolay continued to contact the Iraqis and provided a Jordanian representative several items of chemical warfare equipment (chemical suit, boots, gloves, and decontamination gear). His activity was discovered by US Army military intelligence. After Sombolay's arrest in March 1991, he admitted to providing Desert Shield deployment information, military identification cards, and chemical protection equipment to Jordanian officials. His motivation was money.

Huntsville Times 4 Dec 1991, “Army Spy Sentenced to 34 Years”
Cincinnati Post 7 Dec 1991, “Anatomy of a Spy”

2000 - GEORGE TROFIMOFF, retired US Army Reserve colonel, 73, was arrested on 14 June 2000 in Tampa, Florida, and charged with spying for Russia for 25 years. His arrest concluded a seven-year investigation by the FBI and German authorities. According to the FBI, Trofimoff provided classified information to the Russians while employed in a civilian job in Nuremburg, Germany, from 1959 to 1994, following his military retirement. He allegedly was paid $250,000 for documents provided to KGB, and later, to SVR agents. According the indictment, Trofimoff, who was raised in Germany by Russian émigré parents, was recruited by IGOR SUSEMIHL, a Russian Orthodox priest and Trofimoff’s boyhood friend. Trofimoff enlisted in the US Army in 1948 after his family moved to the US, and he became a US citizen in 1951. He received a commission in the Army Reserve in 1953 and retired with the rank of colonel in 1987. During his military and civilian careers he held Secret or Top Secret security clearances, and in his civilian position, with the Army 66th Military Intelligence Group, he had access to a wide variety of classified materials including US intelligence needs and objectives. In or about 1969, Trofimoff was recruited into the service of the KGB by Susemihl, who at the time served as archbishop of Austria. Susemihl died in 1999. Trofimoff allegedly removed classified documents from the US Army Interrogation Center in Munich, photographed and returned the originals, and then passed the film to Susemihl or KGB agents during several meetings in Austria or southern Germany. It is believed that he turned over more than 50,000 pages of classified documents. Trofimoff and Susemihl had been arrested by German authorities for suspected espionage in 1994, but the case was dropped because the statute of limitations had expired. The investigation, however, was continued by US officials. In late 2000, Trofimoff, who had since retired to Florida, was approached by an FBI agent posing as a Russian officer who offered a “special payment” for additional information. Before his arrest at a Tampa hotel, Trofimoff met with undercover FBI agents several times and was videotaped fully admitting his past involvement in espionage. However, the retired Army employee pleaded not guilty on 26 June, 2001, claiming that he was a loyal American who was just trying to collect some money to cover his debts. Trofimoff, the highest ranking US officer ever accused of spying, was convicted in June for his role in the 25-year espionage conspiracy after a four-week trial. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on 27 September 2001.

Orlando Sentinel 15 Jun 2000, “Viera Retiree is Accused of Espionage”
Stars and Stripes 1 Jul 2000, “Trofimoff Denies He Spied for Soviets”
Washington Post 6 Jun 2001, “Espionage Trial Begins for Retired Army Colonel”
Miami Herald 25 Jun 2001, “Historic Spy Trial in Tampa Nears End”
New York Times 27 Jun 2001, “Retired Army Employee is Found Guilty of Spying”

1997 - KELLY THERESE WARREN, a former US Army clerk, was arrested 10 June 1997 and named in a three-count indictment alleging her involvement in the passing of sensitive information to Hungary and Czechoslovakia in the mid-80’s, as a part of the CLYDE LEE CONRAD spy ring. Warren was charged with conspiracy to aid a foreign government and gathering or delivering classified national defense information. From 1986 to 1988 she had been assigned as an administrative assistant in the section that handled war plans for the Army’s 8th Infantry Division headquarters in Bad Kreuznach, Germany. In 1987 she was recruited into the Conrad ring by then-coworker RODERICK JAMES RAMSAY. Among documents Warren gave to Conrad to pass to Hungarian and Czech agents were secret US and NATO plans for the defense of Western Europe in the event of a Soviet bloc attack. The indictment said that Warren met with Conrad on base, at a bowling alley and in a church in Bad Kreuznach, to trade cash for secrets. She earned only $7,000 for her efforts with which she claimed to have paid off debts, money being her motive. Federal agents had suspected her involvement for almost 10 years. According to a plea agreement, Warren pled guilty to one count of conspiracy to commit espionage on 6 November 1998 and on 12 Februrary she was sentenced to 25 years in prison. Warren is the seventh US service member to be charged with taking part in the Conrad spy ring since 1988.

Florida Times-Union 11 Jun 1997, "Former Soldier Arrested; Warner Robins Woman Charged in Espionage Case"
Raleigh News and Observer 29 Jul 1997, "Federal Agents Still Tracking Members of '80s Army Spy Ring"